09 | Sports in Rehabilitation

Optimising Functioning – A Target of Sports in Rehabilitation

General Introduction

Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) tend to be less physically fit than the general non-SCI population.1 2 Impaired physical functioning associated with SCI can lead to physical inactivity and reduced physical fitness. This can, in turn, lead to secondary complications and difficulties in activities of daily living. Exercise and sport can break this vicious cycle. 3 4 5

Read more: General Introduction

Sports – A Major Chapter in Lisa's Story

Lisa's Story

Lisa "lived" sports...Athletics played a major role both in her private and professional life, as she was an accomplished athlete and a respected high school physical education (and geography) teacher. Following her spinal cord injury (SCI), Lisa’s fitness and athleticism were significant contributors to her overall recovery.

Read more: Lisa's Story

Assessing Functioning from Different Perspectives

Assessment

During the initial assessment phase of the Rehab-Cycle®, both Lisa and members of her rehabilitation team provided insight into Lisa's functioning in terms of body functions and structures, activities and participation, and environmental and personal factors.

Read more: Assessment

Swimming as a Rehabilitation Intervention

Assignment and Intervention

Specific interventions for each of the intervention targets were determined and assigned to the appropriate member(s) of the rehabilitation team. With special emphasis on sports in this Rehab-Cycle®, Lisa's rehabilitation team also included a sports therapist and psychologist in addition to the regular team members.

Read more: Assignment and Intervention

Exploring New Waters

Evaluation

Two months after starting the Rehab-Cycle®, Lisa had progressed, meeting the goals set for two of her three cycle goals  – independence in self-care and increased participation in recreation and leisure.

Read more: Evaluation

Moving Toward Independence

Discussion

Sports and other physical activities can play an important role in the rehabilitative process of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI).

Read more: Discussion

Literature

  1. Jacobs PL, Nash MS. Exercise recommendations for individuals with spinal cord injury. Sports Med. 2004; 34(11): 727-751.
  2. Scelza WM, Kirshblum SC, Wuermser LA, Ho CH, Priebe MM, Chiodo AE. Spinal cord injury medicine. 4. Community reintegration after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007; 88(3) Suppl.1: S71-S75.
  3. Hoffman MD. Cardiorespiratory fitness and training in quadriplegics and paraplegics. Sports Med. 1986; 3(5): 312-330.
  4. Haisma JA, Bussmann JB, Stam HJ, Sluis TA, Bergen MP, Dallmeijer AJ, de Groot S, van der Woude LH. Changes in physical capacity during and after inpatient rehabilitation in subjects with a spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006; 87: 741-748.
  5. Devillard X, Rimaud D, Roche F, Calmels P. Effects of training programs for spinal cord injury. Ann Réadapt Méd Phys. 2007; 50(6): 490-498.
  6. Noreau L, Fougeyrollas P. Long-term consequences of spinal cord injury on social participation: The occurrence of handicap situations. Disabil and Rehab. 2000; 22(4): 170-180.
  7. Nooijen CFJ, de Groot S, Postma K, Bergen MP, Stam HJ, Bussmann JBJ, van den Berg-Emons RJ. A more active lifestyle in persons with a recent spinal cord injury benefits physical fitness and health. Spinal Cord. 2012; 50: 320-323.
  8. Muraki S, Tsunawake N, Hiramatsu S, Yamasaki M. The effect of frequency and mode of sports activity on the psychological status in tetraplegics and paraplegics. Spinal Cord. 2000; 38(5): 309-314.
  9. Gioia MC, Cerasa A, Di Lucente L, Brunelli S, Castellano V, Traballesi V. Psychological impact of sports activity in spinal cord injury patients. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2006; 16(6): 412-416.
  10. Tasiemski T, Kennedy P, Gardner BP, Taylor N. The association of sports and physical recreation with life satisfaction in a community sample of people with spinal cord injuries. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005; 20(4): 253-265.
  11. Slater D, Meade MA. Participation in recreation and sports for persons with spinal cord injury: Review and recommendations. NeuroRehabilitation. 2004; 19(2): 121-129.
  12. Miller W, Chan C. Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM). [Internet] 1 February 2013. Available from: http://www.scireproject.com/outcome-measures-new/spinal-cordindependence-measure-scim. Accessed 2015.
  13. Feldenkrais M. Awareness through movement.(German: Bewusstheit durch Bewegung). Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Surkamp Taschenbuch Verlag; 1978.
  14. Jain S, Janssen K, DeCelle S. Alexander technique and Feldenkrais method: A critical overview. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2004; 15(4): 811-825.
  15. Hillier S and Worley A. The effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method: A systematic review of the evidence. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015; 2015 (Article ID 752160): 1-12.

ICF Research Branch CoordinatorICF Research Branch in cooperation with the WHO Collaborating Centre for the Family of International Classifications in Germany (at DIMDI)

Swiss Paraplegic Research
Guido A. Zäch Strasse 4
6207 Nottwil (Switzerland)


Tel. +41 41 939 66 31
Fax +41 41 939 66 40
www.icf-research-branch.org
www.icf-core-sets.org

Swiss Paraplegic Research © 2018 All Rights Reserved