ICF Case Studies

    01 | Goal-Setting

    01 | Goal-Setting

    Tetraplegia is a serious condition resulting from a spinal cord injury (SCI) that leads to complete or incomplete paralysis of all four limbs.{cs01-fn01}{cs01-fn02} Persons with tetraplegia face a range of physical and psychological challenges. Even an incomplete loss of arm and hand function has an immense impact on an individual's ability to carry out everyday activities.
    02 | Independence

    02 | Independence

    Sporting accidents are a frequent cause of traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCI), and a common subset of these SCI are those resulting from skiing and snowboarding. The devastating injuries that are associated with such recreational sports often affect young men under thirty.
    03 | Hope

    03 | Hope

    Intuitively, it can be said that hope plays a significant role in the process of rehabilitation. However, a central question is whether the feeling of hope can be supported by a rehabilitation team in an explicit way and integrated in the rehabilitation process to achieve better outcomes.
    04 | Health Behaviour

    04 | Health Behaviour

    Health maintenance is considered a key outcome in the long-term care of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). An person's health behaviour plays a major role in maintaining his or her health. Such behaviour encompasses a range of strategies that can be undertaken by the person and supported by the rehabilitation team. A key strategy toward health maintenance is the prevention of adverse events and comorbidities
    05 | SCI in Older Persons

    05 | SCI in Older Persons

    More and more spinal cord injuries (SCI) are occuring in older persons. With the effectiveness of SCI interventions, the increased utilisation of preventative care and specialised treatment centres and people living longer in general, the life expectancy of persons with SCI has increased dramatically over the past decades.
    06 | Recovery After Traumatic SCI

    06 | Recovery After Traumatic SCI

    With the sudden and unexpected nature of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), concerns and questions surrounding recovery are at the forefront of the minds of the person and all concerned with his or her well-being.
    07 | Return-to-Work

    07 | Return-to-Work

    Rehabilitation following spinal cord injury (SCI) recognises the importance of returning to work and the essential role employment plays in participation within a community.
    08 | Community Reintegration

    08 | Community Reintegration

    Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) face extraordinary challenges beyond adapting to the physical aspects of their injury. They may also be confronted with functional limitations, and most importantly restrictions in participation within his or her physical and psychosocial environment. Considering this, a key goal of rehabilitation of persons with SCI is the reintegration into the community.
    09 | Sports in Rehabilitation

    09 | Sports in Rehabilitation

    Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) tend to be less physically fit than the general non-SCI population.{cs09-fn01}{cs09-fn02} Impaired physical functioning associated with SCI can lead to physical inactivity and reduced physical fitness. This can, in turn, lead to secondary complications and difficulties in activities of daily living. Exercise and sport can break this vicious cycle.
    10 | Walking Recovery

    10 | Walking Recovery

    Regaining the ability to walk seems to be a major long-term goal of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI).{cs10-fn01} Considering this and findings that persons with an incomplete SCI are likely to regain some level of walking ability,{cs10-fn02}{cs10-fn03}{cs10-fn04} exploring ways to facilitate “walking recovery” would be important in rehabilitation management.
    11 | Care in Low and Middle-Resource Countries

    11 | Care in Low and Middle-Resource Countries

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 80 percent of people with disabilities live in developing countries. In fact disability rates are disproportionally higher in lower than in higher-resource countries.
    12 | SCI and Environmental Accessibility

    12 | SCI and Environmental Accessibility

    For persons living with a spinal cord injury (SCI) or other types of physical disabilities, accessibility is key to successful community reintegration and vitally important for overall life satisfaction.
    13 | SCI in Adolescence and Peer Relationships

    13 | SCI in Adolescence and Peer Relationships

    For most teenagers, with or without disabilities, adolescence is a period of time full of rapid and dramatic changes that present many challenges. However, teenagers with disabilities face unique challenges that have implications for personal development, family and peer relationships, and healthcare.
    14 | Bowel and Bladder Management

    14 | Bowel and Bladder Management

    For persons living with a spinal cord injury (SCI) or spinal cord disease (SCD), problems associated with bowel and/or bladder functioning are common and have serious consequences for both health maintenance and participation, and ultimately for quality of life.
    15 | Psychological Issues And SCI

    15 | Psychological Issues And SCI

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an extreme and stressful life event that can leave individuals in a state of emotional instability. The person's overall psychological well-being can be influenced not only by the stress experienced during and after the trauma, but also by his or her personal resources and coping strategies.
    16 | Time-Related Aspects

    16 | Time-Related Aspects

    The aspect of time can have an impact on the lived experience of persons with spinal cord injury/disorder (SCI/SCD) – on a person's independence in daily activities and participation in economic, social, and community life.
    17 | Motivation And Rehabilitation

    17 | Motivation And Rehabilitation

    For many persons living with spinal cord injury (SCI), motivation is an important and at times challenging aspect of the rehabilitation process. In general, motivation is a complex, goal-oriented process that involves many factors. Although most everyone has some sort of understanding what motivation is, it is difficult to clearly define, measure and shape motivation.
    18 | Social Service Support In SCI Rehabilitation

    18 | Social Service Support In SCI Rehabilitation

    For persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), there are issues beyond the physical disability, including financial and insurance issues, issues related to employment, and various other environmental factors, that often need to be addressed for rehabilitation and community reintegration to be successful. Social service support in rehabilitation is essential to help navigate through these issues.
    19 | SCI And Chronic Pain Management

    19 | SCI And Chronic Pain Management

    For many persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), living with and managing pain are major challenges that can have a tremendous impact on quality of life and the ability to carry out daily activities.
    20 | Rights For Persons With Disability

    20 | Rights For Persons With Disability

    After experiencing a spinal cord Injury (SCI) the person not only has to deal with regaining body functions and learn strategies to adapt to activity limitations, the person is often confronted with physical and social accessibility issues as well as loss of income or questions of cost coverage for medical/rehabilitative interventions. As a person with disability, being aware of his or her rights and how to navigate through the legal and social security systems could help optimise the person’s community reintegration after SCI.